The Future For Esperanto in Global Communication

(Scrollu duonvoje al la fino por la esperanta versio — Scroll half way to the end for the Esperanto version.)

Esperanto is a language that was developed with the goal of it’s becoming an international auxiliary language, that would facilitate communication between speakers of different languages. Since many different languages are being spoken throughout the world, there is a need for one specific language that everyone could learn in order to communicate with everyone else. People would keep their own native languages, and also learn one other language. One global second language still needs to be agreed on by each parliament in the world. It might be a man-made language like Esperanto, or it might be a natural language like English. English is very difficult to learn, Esperanto is phonetic and regular in it’s conjugations, easier to learn than any natural language. However, unless Esperanto is the language agreed upon by the parliaments of the world as the official global second language, few will learn it. They will spend years of their lives learning complex natural languages such as English, Spanish or Chinese, and world communication will not progress very far. However, if more people don’t learn Esperanto, the world’s parliaments will probably not select it as the global auxiliary language. Is there a better second language, for instance, a streamlined version of a natural language? Will there be another invented language that will be learned by more people than Esperanto? Right now there is a group on Facebook that receives posts from people all over the world in Esperanto. Someone posts every few minutes.

To accommodate phonetic spelling, the Esperanto Alphabet consists of the following letters:

A B C Ĉ D E F G Ĝ H Ĥ I J Ĵ K L M N O P R S Ŝ T U Ŭ V Z      

There is no Q, W, X or Y.

V is pronounced somewhere between the English V and W. The Esperanto words for FOUR and FIVE, KVAR and KVIN are difficult with an English V. QUAR and QUEEN would be approximations of the Esperanto pronunciations of those two words. 

The Esperanto J is pronounced like the English Y. The J sound of English is covered in Esperanto with Ĝ or Gx.

The sound of X is designated in Esperanto by KS, thus the X as a single letter is not needed. On systems where the hats over the letters are not available, an x after a letter, such as C, J and S, substitutes for the hat. Either creates another letter with another sound. 

C is pronounced like TS in CENTS. Ĉ or Cx is pronounced like CH in CHURCH. G is pronounced like G in GO. Ĝ or Gx is pronounced like G in GIANT. H is pronounced like H in HOT. Ĥ or Hx is pronounced like CH in BACH. This clearing-the-throat sound does not normally occur in English, and is rare in Esperanto as well. 

J is pronounced like Y in YEAR. Ĵ or Jx is pronounced like S in TREASURE. S is pronounced like S in SO, Ŝ or Sx ìs pronounced like SH is SHUSH. 

The consonants B, D, F, K, L, M, N, P, T and Z are the same in Esperanto as in English. The Esperanto R is rolled similar to the Spanish R. There is no spelling for the English TH, as used in the English words ETHER, EITHER, THOUGHT or THE, sounds that often occur in English.

The Esperanto vowel A is pronounced like AW in AWESOME. There is no Esperanto spelling for the A in APPLE. E is pronounced like E in NET. I (i) is pronounced like I in MACHINE. There is no spelling for the I in IN. O is pronounced like the OA in OAK. U is pronounced like the U in USE. There is no spelling for the U in UP. There are no spellings for the OO in BOOK or the vowel R as occurs in the English words WORD and PURSE. Sounds for which there are no Esperanto spellings are not part of the basic Esperanto vocabulary. 

At first glance Esperanto might appear to be a simplified version of Spanish. A lot of the root words in Esperanto were derived from Latin.

Normally I is used to designate the vowel that might be spelled with EE, EA, I or Y in English, and J is used for the consonant form, when Y begins a word, such as the English word YEAR, JARO in Esperanto, pronounced YARO, ryhmes with MORROW. In Esperanto, the Y sound at the beginning of a word is spelled with J.

There are, however, certain times when a vowel is designated, in Esperanto spelling, with J rather than I. One instance of this is when the plural is formed by adding the vowel form of J, pronounced as a vowel blend, a dipthong, between the O that all singular Esperanto nouns end with, and J, the plural designator. OJ is pronounced like OY as in the English word BOY. In Esperanto, HUNDO is DOG, HUNDOJ is DOGS. The root word, HUND rhymes with the English SPOONED.

The vowel that sounds like EE used in Esperanto dipthongs is spelled with J rather than the I that might be expected.

AJ is used in the Esperanto word KAJ, (AND in English), pronounced like KI in the English word KITE.

EJ is used in the Esperanto word, PLEJ (MOST in English), pronounced like the English word, PLAY.

UJ is used in the Esperanto word TUJ (IMMEDIATELY in English), rhymes with the English word GOOEY.

AŬ or AUx is used in Esperanto in BALDAŬ (SOON in English) pronounced BALD-OW. 

EŬ or EUx is used in the Esperanto word, EŬRO, a unit of European currency, pronounced E as in MEN plus O as in DO. This last dipthong is not used often.

Esperanto has regular, predictible spelling, pronunciationl and verb conjugations. There are a number of prefixes and suffixes that can be added to root words to produce a variety of meanings in a consistent manner. One can be creative in their use and still be readily understood.

BELA means BEAUTIFUL. All Esperanto adjectives end in A. BELE means BEAUTIFULLY. Esperanto adverbs end with E. BELULO means an attractive person. -UL- is a suffix that indicates a person who has the quality designated by the root word it is used with.

BELULINO would specify a beautiful woman as the suffix -IN- indicates the feminine form of the word. BELEJO (pronounced BELAYO) would designate a beauty parlor as -EJ- added to a word indicates the place where the thing is done or developed.

The infinitive forms of all Esperanto verbs end in I. TO LOVE is AMI. AMAS is the verb in the present tense. MI AMAS VIN means I LOVE YOU. LI AMAS MIN means HE LOVES ME. ĈI AMAS ILIN means SHE LOVES THEM. VI AMAS ĈIN means YOU LOVE HER. 

NI AMAS LIN means WE LOVE HIM. MI AMIS LIN means I LOVED HIM. MI AMOS LIN means I WILL LOVE HIM. MI AMUS LIN means I WOULD LOVE HIM. AMU ILIN! means LOVE THEM! VI ESTAS AMATA means YOU ARE LOVED. Other Eseranto verbs are conjugated the same way.

There are several free online Esperanto courses. One is https://lernu.net/en . Another is https://www.duolingo.com/ .

I think that Esperanto should add to it’s alphabet, because if it is to succeed as the official auxiliary language for global communication, it will need to absorb words from other languages in technical fields, particularly English. In order to absorb English words, and thus be enabled to compete with English as the universal language of technology, Esperanto will need to add letters for the sounds that English has that Esperanto does not as yet have. These include 2 TH sounds, a W consonant, the vowels in BAT, BIT, BOOK, BUT, BURT, and the unaccented vowel in the second syllable of WORKMAN. Symbols for these 9 sounds could be made by applying hats to existing letters. The W, already present on most keyboards, could be employed for W. The unused Q could be used for one or both of the THs. (One of the Qs would need to wear a hat — in a phonetic system a word like ETHER would need to be distinguishable from a word like EITHER.) Alternatively, the EITHER TH could be spelled with the ^ over the D and the ETHER TH could be spelled with the ^ over the T. 5 of the vowels lacking in written Esperanto could be spelled with a ^ over each of the 5 existing vowels. Â could be the A in BAT. Ê could be the unaccented vowel, such as in the second syllable of WORKMAN, Î could be I in BIT. Ô could be the OO in BOOK. Û is distinguishable from the U with the valley symbol over it used in Esperanto dipthongs and could signify the U in BUT. The vowel form of R can be designated by R itself. A name like BURT can simply be spelled BRT when absorbed into Esperanto. If this is seen to be problematic, the unaccented vowel could preceed the R as BÊRT.

Although English seems to be winning the race for the global auxiliary language, it comes at a large human cost to the people required to learn it, as it is highly irregular. Do the people colonized by the English enjoy speaking the language of their historic oppressors? If Esperanto could grow into it, it has the potential to become the universal communication tool of the future.

English has more vowels than some other languages, kind of like how an Arabic musician finds more notes on a violin string. Arabic music divides the octave into smaller increments. 

An English speaker enunciates 4 separate vowels with the lips in a smile. With the top and bottom front teeth almost touching and the lips in a smile, the vowel that comes out is I (EAT, TEA, BE etc.). Open the jaws just a little, still smiling, and the vowel that comes out is Π(IT, IS, BIT etc.). Open the jaws wider, smiling, and E (TEN, WHEN, GET etc.) is the vowel that comes out. Open the jaws as wide as you can while keeping the smile, and  (AT, NAP, BACK etc.) comes out. For these vowel sounds the tip of the tongue is below the bottom teeth. Of course it has to move around for the consonants.

With the lips in a more relaxed position and the tongue at the base of the bottom teeth, English speakers produce 2 vowels, Û (UP, WHAT, DUCK etc.), with the jaws partly open, and A (ALL, WALK, HOT etc.) with the jaws wide open. With the mouth relaxed, the jaws part way open, and the tongue curled part way up, the vowel form of R (HER, PURSE, WORK etc.) is produced.

With the lips pursed forward, the jaws mostly closed and the tip of the tongue at the base of the bottom teeth, the vowel U (USE, FOOD, TUBE etc.) is produced. With the lips pursed and the jaws a little more open, Ô (PUT, COULD, BOOK) is produced. With the jaws as open as they can with the lips pursed, the vowel O (HOPE, SHOW, GO etc.) is produced.

I wrote three booklets on the vowels used in English when I was teaching my children to read and write. They are linked below:

Smile Sounds

Waterfall Sounds

Wind Sounds

La estonteco por la esperanta lingva en tutmonda kumunikado

La esperanto estas lingvo evoluigita kun la celo, ke ĝi fariĝos internacia helpa lingvo, kiu ebligus komunikadon inter parolantoj de malsamaj lingvoj. Pro tio ke multaj lingvoj estas parolataj en la tuta mondo, necesas unu specifa lingvo, kiun ĉiuj povus lerni por komuniki kun ĉiuj. Homoj konservus siajn proprajn lingvojn, kaj ankaŭ lernis unu lingvon. Unu tutmonda dua lingvo ankoraŭ devas esti interkonsentita de ĉiu parlamento en la mondo. Ĝi povus esti homfarita lingvo kiel la esperanto, aŭ ĝi povus esti natura lingvo kiel la angla. La angla estas tre malfacile lerni, la esperanto estas fonetika kaj regula en ĝiaj konjugacioj, pli facila por lerni ol iu ajn natura lingvo. Tamen, krom se la esperanto estas la lingvo interkonsentita de la parlamentoj de la mondo kiel la oficiala tutmonda dua lingvo, malmultaj lernos ĝin. Ili pasigos jarojn de siaj vivoj lernante kompleksajn naturajn lingvojn kiel ekzemple angla, hispana aŭ ĉina, kaj monda komunikado ne multe progresos. Tamen, se pli da homoj ne lernas la esperanton, la mondaj parlamentoj verŝajne ne elektos ĝin kiel tutmonda helpa lingvo. Ĉu estas pli bona dua lingvo, ekzemple, simpligita versio de natura lingvo? Ĉu estos alia elpensita lingvo, kiu estos lernata de pli da homoj ol la esperanto? Nuntempe estas grupo en Facebook, kiu ricevas poŝtojn de homoj tra la tuta mondo en la esperanto. Iu afiŝas ĉiun malmultajn minutojn.

Por akomodi fonetikan ortografion, la Esperanta Alfabeto konsistas el jenaj leteroj: A B C Ĉ D E F G Ĝ Ĥ I J Ĵ K L M N O P R S Ŝ T U Ŭ V Z

Ne estas Q, W, X aŭ Y.

V estas prononcata ie inter la angla V kaj W. La vortoj de la esperanto por FOUR kaj FIVE, KVAR kaj KVIN estas malfacilaj kun anglo V. QUAR kaj QUEEN estus alproksimiĝoj de la esperantaj prononcoj de tiuj du vortoj.

La esperanto J estas prononcata kiel la angla Y. La angla sono estas kovrata en la esperanto per Ĝ aŭ Gx.

La sono de X estas nomumata en la esperanto per KS, do la X kiel ununura letero ne estas bezonata.. Sur sistemoj, kie la ĉapeloj super la leteroj ne estas haveblaj, x post la letero, kiel C, J kaj S, anstataŭigas la ĉapelon. Aŭ uno kreas alian leteron kun alia sono.

C estas prononcata kiel TS en CENTS. Ĉ aŭ Cx estas prononcata kiel CH en CHURCH. G estas prononcata kiel G en GO. Ĝ aŭ Gx estas prononcata kiel G en GIANT. H estas prononcata kiel H en HOT. Ĥ aŭ Hx estas prononcata kiel CH en BACH. Ĉi tiu klara-gorĝa sono ne okazas en la angla, kaj estas malofta en la esperanto ankaŭ.

J estas prononcata kiel Y en YEAR. Ĵ aŭ Jx estas prononcata kiel S en TREASURE. S estas prononcata kiel S en SO, Ŝ aŭ Sx-aj prononcata kiel SH en SHUSH.

La konsonantoj B, D, F, K, L, M, N, P, T kaj Z estas samaj en la esperanto kiel en la angla. La esperanto R estas ruliĝata simila al la hispano R. Ne ekzistas literumado por la angla TH, kiel uzata en la anglaj vortoj ETHER, EITHER, THOUGHT aŭ THE, sonoj kiuj ofte okazas en la angla.

La esperanta vokalo A estas prononcata kiel AW en AWESOME. Ne ekzistas esperanto-literumado por la A en APPLE. E estas prononcata kiel E en NET. I (i) estas prononcata kiel I en MACHINE. Ne ekzistas literumado por I en IN. O estas prononcita kiel la OA en OAK. U estas prononcita kiel la U en USE. Ne ekzistas literumado por U en UP. Ne estas ortografioj por la OO en BOOK aŭ la vokalo R kiel ĝi okazas en la anglaj vortoj WORD kaj PURSE. Sonoj, por kiuj ne estas esperanto-literoj, ne estas parto de la baza esperanta vortaro.

Al unua vido, la esperanto ŝajnus esti simpligita versio de la hispana. Multaj radikoj en la esperanto estis derivitaj el la latina.

En esperanto kutime I estas uzata por literumi la vokalon, kiu povus esti skribata per EE, EA, I aŭ Y en la angla,, kaj J estas uzata por la konsonanto, kiam Y komencas vorton, kiel la angla vorto YEAR en la esperanto prononcata YARO, ĝi rimas kun MORROW. En la esperanto, la sono de Y al la komenco de vorto estas literumata kun J.

Tamen de certaj tempoj, vokalo estas difinita, en esperanto-literumado, kun J anstataŭ I. Unu ekzemplo de ĉi tio estas kiam la pluralo estas formata per aldono de J, prononcata kiel diftongo inter la O, ke ĉiuj unuopaj esperantaj substantivoj finiĝas kun, kaj J, la vojo la esperanto indikas pluran. OJ estas prononcata kiel OY kiel en la angla vorto, BOY. En la esperanto, HUNDO estas DOG, HUNDOJ estas DOGS. La radika vorto, HUND rimas kun la angla vorto SPOONED.

La vokalo, kiu sonas kiel EE uzata en esperantaj diftongoj, estas skribita kun J anstataŭ ol I, .

kvankam vokaloj en esperanto, kiuj sonas kiel EE sed ne estas parto de diftongo, estas literitaj per I.

AJ estas uzata en la esperanta vorto KAJ (AND en la angla), prononcata kiel KI en la angla vorto KITE.

EJ estas uzata en la esperanta vorto, PLEJ (MOST en la angla), prononcata kiel la angla vorto, PLAY.

UJ estas uzata en la esperanta vorto TUJ (IMMEDIATELY en la angla). Ĝi rimas kun la angla vorto GOOEY.

EŬ aŭ EUx estas uzata en la esperanta vorto, EŬRO, unuo de eŭropa monero, prononcata E kiel en MEN pli O kiel en DO. Ĉi tiu lasta diftongo ne estas tre ofte uzata.

La esperanto havas regulan ortografion kaj facilan verban konjugacion. Ekzistas multaj prefiksoj kaj sufiksoj, kiuj povas esti aldonitaj al vortoj de radiko por produkti diversajn signifojn en maniero ke povas antaŭdiri. Unu povas esti krea kaj ankoraŭ esti facile komprenata.

BELA signifas BEAUTIFUL. Ĉiuj esperantaj adjektivoj finiĝas en A. BELE signifas BEAUTIFULLY. Esperantaj adverboj finiĝas kun E. BELULO signifas allogan personon. -UL- estas sufikso, kiu indikas personon, kiu havas la kvaliton designitan per la radika vorto, kiun ĝi uzata kun. BELULINO Specifus belan virinon kiel la sufikso -IN- indikas la inan formon de la vorto. BELEJO (prononcita BELAYO) designus belegan ĉambron kiel -EJ- aldonita al vorto indikas la lokon kie la afero estas farita aŭ evoluigita.

La infinitivaj formoj de ĉiuj esperantaj verboj finiĝas en I. TO LOVE estas AMI. AMAS estas la verbo en la nuna tempo. MI AMAS VIN signifas I LOVE YOU. LI AMAS MIN signifas HE LOVES ME. ĈI AMAS ILIN signifas SHE LOVES THEM. VI AMAS ĈIN signifas YOU LOVE HER.

NI AMAS LIN signifas WE LOVE HIM. MI AMIS LIN signifas I LOVED HIM. MI AMOS LIN signifas I WILL LOVE HIM. MI AMUS LIN signifas I WOULD LOVE HIM. AMU ILIN! signifas LOVE THEM! VI ESTAS AMATA signifas YOU ARE LOVED.

Estas kelkaj senpagaj interretaj Esperanto-kursoj. Unu estas https://lernu.net/en . Alia estas https://www.duolingo.com/ .

Mi pensas, ke la esperanto bezonas aldoni al ĝia alfabeto, ĉar se ĝi estos sukcesi kiel oficiala helpa lingvo por tutmonda komunikado, necesos sorbi vortojn de aliaj lingvoj en teknikaj kampoj, precipe la anglo. Por sorbi anglajn vortojn, kaj tiel esti kapabligita konkurenci kun la anglo kiel la universala lingvo de teknologio, la esperanto devos aldoni literojn por la sonoj, kiujn la anglo havas, ke la esperanto ankoraŭ ne havas.

Ĉi tiuj inkluzivas 2 TH sonojn, W konsonanton, la vokalojn en BAT, BIT, BOOK, BUT, BURT, kaj la unaccented vokalo en la dua silabo de WORKMAN. Simboloj por tiuj 9 sonoj povus esti faritaj per apliki ĉapelojn al ekzistantaj literoj. La W, jam ĉeestanta en plej multaj klavaroj, povus esti uzata. La neuzata Q povus esti uzata por unu aŭ ambaŭ el la THs. (Unu el la Q-aj bezonus porti ĉapelon – en fonetika sistemo vorto kiel ETHER bezonus distingebla de vorto kiel EITHER.) 

Alternative, la EITHER TH povus uzi la ^ super D kaj la ETHER TH povus uzi la ^ super la T.

5 el la vokaloj, kiuj havas skribitan Esperanton, povus esti skribitaj per ĉiuj 5 el la ekzistantaj vokaloj. Â povus esti la A en BAT. Ê povus esti la senkulpa vokalo kiel ekzemple en la dua silabo de WORKMAN. Î povus esti la I en BIT. Ô povus esti la OO en BOOK. Û estas distingebla de la U kun valva simbolo super ĝi uzata en Esperanto-diftongoj, kaj povus signifi la U en BUT.

La vokala formo de R povas esti nomumita per R mem. Nomo kiel BURT simple povas esti literumita BRT kiam absorbita en la esperanton. Se ĉi tio aspektas problema, la senkulpa vokalo povus preterpasi la R kiel BÊRT.

Kvankam la angla ŝajnas esti gajnanta la vetkuron por la tutmonda helpa lingvo, ĝi venas al granda homa kosto al la homoj bezonataj por lerni ĝin, ĉar ĝi estas tre malregula. Ĉu la homoj popolitaj de la angloj ĝuas paroli pri la lingvo de iliaj historiaj opresantoj? Se Esperanto povus kreski en ĝi, ĝi havas la eblecon fariĝi la universala komunikila ilo de la estonteco.

La angla havas pli da vokaloj ol iuj aliaj lingvoj, simila al kiel araba muzikisto trovas pli da notoj sur la ŝnuro de violono. Araba muziko dividas la oktavon en pli malgrandajn pecojn.

Angla parolanto prononcas 4 apartajn vokalojn kun la lipoj en rideto.

Kun la supraj kaj malsupraj frontaj dentoj preskaŭ tuŝantaj kaj la lipoj ridetaj, la vokalo, kiu eliras, estas I (EAT, TEA, BE ktp). Malfermu la makzelojn nur iomete, ankoraŭ ridetante, kaj la vokalo, kiu eliras, estas Î (IT, IS, BIT ktp). Malfermu la makzelojn pli larĝe, ridetante, kaj E (TEN, KIEL, GET ktp) estas la vokalo kiu eliras. Malfermu la makzelojn tiel larĝe kiel vi povas dum la rideto, kaj (AT, NAP, BACK ktp) eliras. Dum ĉi tiuj vokaloj sonas la pinto de la lango estas sub la malsupraj dentoj. Kompreneble ĝi devas moviĝi por la konsonantoj.

Kun la lipoj en pli malstreĉita pozicio kaj la lango ĉe la bazo de la fundaj dentoj, parolantoj de la angla lingvo produktas 2 vokalojn, Û (UP, WHAT, DUCK ktp), kun la makzeloj parte malfermitaj, kaj A (ĈIU, WALK, HOT ktp) kun la makzeloj larĝe malfermitaj. Kun la buŝo malstreĉiĝinta, la makzeloj malfermiĝas, kaj la lango kurbigata supren, la vokala formo de R (HER, PURSE, WORK ktp) estas produktata.

Kun la lipoj antaŭejn kvazaŭ por kisi, la makzeloj plejparte fermitaj kaj la pinto de la lango ĉe la bazo de la fundaj dentoj, la vokalo U (USO, FOOD, TUBE ktp) produktas. Kun la lipoj antaŭejn kaj la makzeloj iom pli malfermitaj, Ô (PUT, COULD, BOOK) estas produktita. Kun la makzeloj tiel malfermitaj kiel ili povas per la lipoj antaŭeniras, la vokalo O (HOPE, SHOW, GO ktp) estas produktata.

Mi skribis tri broŝurojn pri la vokaloj uzataj en la angla kiam mi instruis al miaj infanoj legi kaj skribi. Ili estas ligitaj sube:

Smile Sounds

Waterfall Sounds

Wind Sounds

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Rigged

I was thinking about the government and wondering why some people back policies designed to make the rich richer, when many of the people voicing conservative opinions aren’t particularly rich, and don’t benefit from the policies they defend. That’s a real riddle to me. Are the wealthy such skillful propagandists that people who don’t know better just get scammed, to not only go along with policies that subsidize the wealthy at everyone else’s expense but also, to voiciferously defend them? “Don’t take money from the business tycoons! They worked hard building their businesses making products we all need, and they deserve to wallow in their opulance!” Is there a misplaced indentity in the factory worker, toiling away while listening to hate mongering against the lower classes on her radio, thinking, as oppressed as she is, at least she’s better off than someone else? Or is it like the victim of a kidnapping who comes to take on the opinions of his captors? Is there brain washing going on? I just can’t believe that the 99% are letting the 1% get away with what they’re getting away with! Do we really think that we are just one lucky gamble away from joining the super-rich? We don’t want to destroy that lifestyle, because there’s chance we’ll get there too?

I read, Rigged: How Globalization and the Rules of the Modern Economy Were Structured to Make the Rich Richer, by Dean Baker. The ebook is available at deanbaker.net in a variety of formats for free. I didn’t realize that until after I had bought my copy from Amazon for $1.99. The author explains how a laissez faire economy is impossible because there has to be rules of some kind that will effect the outcome in some way. These rules will benefit one class of people to the detriment of another. The people benefiting don’t want the rules to change, unless they can skew them to benefit themselves even more. They protest any attempt to change the rules for a more agrarian outcome by screaming, “Free market economy!” 

“There is no scenario in which the market works alone. Government policies will affect the level of output in the economy. The only question is whether we want to design these policies explicitly to meet certain goals or if we want to pretend we don’t notice the impact of the policies we have put in place.” Dean Baker, Rigged, 11%.

Baker examines five areas in which policies deliberately set by the government, or left in place by the government, have had the effect of ratcheting up the wealth of a small group of people, while the majority have watched their own standards of living plummet, within the last four decades in the United States. The book implies that a more equal distribution of wealth can be achieved by the adoption, by the government, of different policies in those five areas. I read it twice, taking notes the second time, because I really want to understand this.

 “In the case of macroeconomic policy, the United States and other wealthy countries have explicitly adopted policies that focus on maintaining low rates of inflation. Central banks are quick to raise interest rates at the first sign of rising inflation and sometimes even before. Higher interest rates slow inflation by reducing demand, thereby reducing job growth, and reduced job growth weakens workers’ bargaining power and puts downward pressure on wages. In other words, the commitment to an anti-inflation policy is a commitment by the government, acting through central banks, to keep wages down. It should not be surprising that this policy has the effect of redistributing income upward.” Dean Baker, Rigged, 5%.

According to Baker’s Rigged, there is a cluster of consequences to keeping interest rates high. They include:

  • Low inflation
  • Rise in the value of the dollar relative to other currencies
  • Upward redistribution of wealth 
  • Reduced consumption or demand
  • Slow job growth 
  • High unemployment
  • Downward pressure on wages
  • Weakened worker’s bargaining power
  • Longer hours for those who remain employed (if company provides benefits)
  • High US trade deficit (we are importing goods faster than we are paying for them with either exported goods or money)
  • Manufacturing jobs are lost

Why the government has set these scenarios as priorities has to do with the goals of the people making the decisions. 

The second area in which, according to Basker, wealth is being redistributed upward, is the structure of the financial industry and it’s regulation. Baker compares the financial industry to the trucking industry in that as the trucking industry moves goods from place to place, the financial industry handles capital and securities. The financial industry has undergone a rapid growth in the last few decades, “from 4.5 percent of GDP in 1970 to 7.4 percent in 2015.” (Baker 19%). He points out that all of this growth does not seem to improve the effectiveness of the industry in serving it’s function and, “waste in the financial sector provides income for some of the highest earners in the economy.” Dean Baker, Rigged, 19%.

“Excessive trading is the greatest source of rents in the financial sector, and subjecting it to a financial transactions tax (FTT) would go a long way toward bringing taxation in the financial sector in line with the rest of the economy.” Baker, Rigged, 20%

Government policy has been to guarantee the solvency of huge banks at guarantee the solvency of huge banks at tax payers’ expense, too big to fail (TBTF) insurance. Baker believes that the banks should be asked to downsize themselves, break themselves up to their size of the 1990s or 1980s. (Baker, Rigged 25%)

The third area covered in Rigged to explain why wealth has been redistributed upward, toward the already wealthy, during the last few decades, is patent and copyright protection. Protections for pharmaceutical products are more important to the government than preventing the loss of manufacturing jobs.

“When government officials sit down wth their counterparts from China and other countries, they can negotiate over the currency policies that these countries are pursuing. If negotiators opt to make currency a priority, they can likely get these countries to agree to increase the value of their currencies relative to the dollar… There will be a trade-off for focusing on currency values, meaning that other items will be given lower priority. For example, the United States has pressed China for increased access for the financial industry, the telecommunications industry, and retailers, and it has pressed China and other developing countries to devote more resources toward enforcing U.S. patents and copyrights.” Baker, Rigged, 17% 

“Over the last four decades these protections have been made stronger and longer. In the case of both patent and copyright, the duration of the monopoly period has been extended. In addition, these monopolies have been applied to new areas. Patents can now be applied to life forms, business methods, and software. Copyrights have been extended to cover digitally produced material as well as the Internet. Penalties for infringement have been increased and the United States has vigorously pursued their application in other countries through trade agreements and diplomatic pressure” Dean Baker, Rigged. 5%

So basically we say to China, “We’ll keep our currency high relative to yours so you can have us as a market for your manufactured products. We just ask that you honor our patents on our pharmaceuticals to protect the exorbitant income of our 1%”

The 4th way income has been redistributed upward during the past several decades, according to Dean Baker in Rigged, is the pay of corporate executive officers (CEOs).

“The CEOs who are paid tens of millions a year would like the public to think that the market is simply compensating them for their extraordinary skills. A more realistic story is that a broken corporate governance process gives corporate boards of directors — the people who largely determine CEO pay — little incentive to hold down pay. Directors are more closely tied to top management than to the shareholders they are supposed to represent, and their positions are lucrative, usually paying six figures for very part-time work. Directors are almost never voted out by shareholders for their lack of attention to the job or for incompetence.” Baker, Rigged 5%

The 5th way that that the wealth gap has increased within the last few decades, according to Dean Baker in Rigged, is by protections to the pay of doctors, dentists and lawyers.

“Finally, government policies strongly promote the upward redistribution of income for highly paid professionals by protecting them from competition. To protect physicians and specialists, we restrict the ability of nurse practitioners or physician assistants to perform tasks for which they are entirely competent. We require lawyers for work that paralegals are capable of completing. While trade agreements go far to remove any obstacle that might protect an autoworker in the United States from competition with a low-paid factory worker in Mexico or China, they do little or nothing to reduce the barriers that protect doctors, dentists, and lawyers from the same sort of competition. To practice medicine in the United States, it is still necessary to complete a residency program here, as though there were no other way for a person to become a competent doctor.” Dean Baker, , 5%

“The United States will spend more than $3.3 trillion in 2016 on health care…, more than $10,300 per person and roughly twice the average for other wealthy countries. But for all this extra spending it is not clear that we get better quality health care. By some measures, like life expectancy and infant mortality rates, the United States ranks low among rich countries. While treatment for some conditions is better here, we cannot say that the quality overall is better.” Dean Baker, Rigged 55% 

I had a few skin cancers treated with liquid nitrogen by a dermatologist. Medicare paid for 80%, but this dermatologist did not accept Medi-Cal, which would have covered the other 20%. When I received the bill I realized I could not afford this treatment. I may need to spend a day interviewing dermatologist’s offices by phone until I find one that takes both Medicare and Medi-Cal, or find another alternative.

A promising treatment for me, that came in the mail, was a preparation called Blood Root Paste. This product does not have a huge intellectual property markup, because it is an herbal preparation.  No one has, as of yet, found a way to patent a plant without genetically modifying it. This means that no one, other than perhaps wealthy governments, can run the expensive testing to prove (or disprove) effectiveness and safety of herbal products. The salve, for which I paid something like $12,  which included shipping from Equator, actually removed two skin cancers that the dermatologist had refused to treat with the liquid nitrogen, had biopsied, and recommended that I get surgery. The surgeon she recommended does not accept Medi-Cal either, and there is no way I can afford the 20% of the cost of surgery that Medicare won’t pay.

“The low density of doctors in the United States might … be a factor in the pay gap. The United States has 2.6 physicians per 1,000 people …,  compared with 2.8 in the United Kingdom, 3.3 in France, and 4.0 in Germany. But the relatively low density in the United States is a matter of deliberate policy. In 1997, the Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education decided to limit medical school enrollments in the United States, which had previously been growing more or less in step with population growth. Dean Baker, Rigged 57%

I learned the difference between the cost of dental care in the United States and in Mexico when I decided to have my mercury filings replaced with composite, since I live about an hour away from Tijuana. The difference in cost is so substantial that I thought Mexican dentistry must be inferior in some way. I have had dental work done in Mexico and in the United States and I can’t say that it is any better in the United States. Why the difference in cost?

“[T]he average pay of U.S. dentists is almost 40 percent higher than in the next highest country (Japan) and more than twice as high as in the United Kingdom, Italy, or Finland,… [T]he law requires that dentists graduate from an accredited dental school in the United States (an exception for Canada began in 2011). Dentists protect themselves from domestic competition by limiting the scope of practice of dental hygienists, who often have the skills to perform many of the tasks performed by dentists.” Dean Baker, Rigged  58%

I learned a lot from this book. I used to think that boycotting Chinese manufactured goods would do some good. I even tried to do that, but it is next to impossible. A cell phone, DVD player, or almost anything you need, is made in China, Vietnam, Malaysia etc. It is not true that people over there will work for less and accept substandard working conditions. Even if that is part of the truth, it’s not the whole truth. The truth is  the decision makers have decided to protect the pay of CEOs, doctors, dentists, lawyers, Pfizer, Microsoft, Disney and Chase Manhattan, and let the rest of our jobs go overseas.
We should demand that provisions be put in place to limit the pay of CEOs, that the interest rate be lowered, that a system be set up to finance research and development that is less costly and more efficient than patents, that a trading tax be levied on stock exchanges, that the large banks be broken up, that general practitioners, nurses, medical assistants, dental assistants and paralegals be allowed to do work they are educated and qualified for, that limits to the number of doctors and dentists being allowed to practice in this country end, that the tax codes be simplified and loopholes be done away with.

“[M]ost high-end earners are probably not like the counterfeiter who does nothing productive, but insofar as they are paid more than is necessary for their services, their excess pay does come at the expense of the rest of us. This means that if a CEO is paid $30 million, but someone else would do as good a job for one half or one third of the pay, then the rest of us are effectively subsidizing this person’s pay. The channels through which the money goes from the rest of us to the high-end earners may not always be clear, but their good fortune nonetheless imposes a cost on the rest of us.” Dean Baker, Rigged, 8%.

You might also like to check out Dean Baker’s blog.

Greed to Gratitude

When my life wanes like the slender evening moon

And I’m waiting for darkness to come;

I’m waiting for You to gather my essence

Leaving my spent body behind:

I Will be searching my heart.

Has my anger turned to passion for truth?

Has my hate turned to compassion?

Have my fears turned to reliance on You?

Has my greed turned to gratitude?

Has my lust turned to love?

I don’t want to leave here without bearing fruit.

Like the mango tree pulls mud from the ground and heat from the sun to produce it’s delicious fruit,

I must pull  heat from You to metabolize these vain insecurities of mine into something sweet. 

I will be waiting, years I hope, for Your embrace. It will come.

 I Dared to call Him Father, by Bilquis Sheikh

I attended a Catholic mass Sunday. The scripture aboutJesus and his disciples in a boat during a storm was shared and expounded on. I’m not sure I believe that Jesus literally walked on water and that Peter literally took a few steps on the water before he started to sink, but it is a wonderful metaphor. 

Walking on water, to me, is a metaphor for maintaining emotional equanimity. Both are difficult, perhaps imposible, or nearly so. When I’m in a storm of anger, fear or hurt feelings, like Peter I’m calling out, “Help me Lord I’m sinking!” 

I read a book about a Muslim woman in Pakistan, I Dared to Call Him Father, by Bilquis Sheikh) who, through dreams and an inner voice, came to understand that she was to become a Christian. I don’t understand why she couldn’t have had Muhammad and Jesus too. Don’t Muslims accept the teachings of Jesus the way Christians accept the teachings of Moses? This book told of another formerly Muslim woman, who had accepted the Christian Faith and then had been murdered, most likely by her brother. No arrests were made. In a practice known as “honor killing,” a woman, who is judged by relatives to have brought shame on the family, is murdered by a close male relative such as a father, brother or husband, often with impunity. This is part of the culture in some parts of the world. One can imagine how intimidating that is for the girls and women living in such a culture. I read a book some time ago that discussed the situation for women in Jordan (Honor Lost: Love And Death In Modern Day Jordan, by Norma Khouri). It described the murder of a woman by her father for being in a relationship with a Catholic man. This regimentation of the lives of girls and women, enforced by murders rarely prosecuted, predates Muhammad and Islam. It is a pernicious cultural practice that is changing very slowly with the slowly increasing educational opportunities for girls. 

 According to the book, I Dared to Call Him Father, there are many secret Christians in Pakistan, people who secretly accept the salvation of Christ, while maintaining the appearance of being Muslim. The author, Bilquis Sheikh, was completely open about her conversion to Christianity. She did receive criticism and shunning from some family members, even some threats, but she prayed and lived a life of faith. She left Pakistan for awhile, then returned for the last few years of her life.

Honor killing takes place against people who change their religion, engage in promiscuous. or homosexual behavior, refuse an arranged marriage, seek divorce from even a violently abusive marriage, or became the victim of rape. Although it is a crime primarily against women and girls, being gay can get a man killed within the cultures that practice honor killing. A young man or boy may be coerced into killing his own sister. 

Honor killings happen all over the world, but particularly in Muslim, Hindu and Sikh communities. I read the article on honor killing on Wikipedia, which gives details by country. There are laws against murder everywhere, but honor as an excuse for murder is effective in many locales for the perpetrators to receive lenient sentences or even to avoid prosecution all together.

I admire the courage Bilquis Sheikh, a woman from a well-to-do family in Pakistan, showed when she felt the call from God to change her religion, and did so openly, even in the climate of fear created by the honor killings in her midst. The story, I Dared to Call Him Father, opens in the 1960s when Bilquis was in her 50s. She had been divorced and was the caretaker of a young grandson.

The Quran states that God (Allah) is not our father, that he does not beget. Muhammad was explaining that the figure of speech Jesus used to describe God was only that — a figure of speech. I do not feel that that negates it’s apness as a figure of speech. 

My Mom’s Toe


Hi Toni,

Once while visiting Mom at the facility she was in, she had her pedicure while I was there. This was, I believe, almost a year prior to her passing. I noticed a bruised area that included one of her toes and her foot above the toe. She did complain a little when that foot, and especially that toe, was being handled.

I have seen feet that have been injured by being run over by a wheel chair before. Although they did try to be gentle and apologized to Mom for hurting her, neither the doctor nor the nurse offered me any explaination about the trauma that had caused the injury, nor did I ask, knowing I would be told it was confidential information. I hoped that you, as the go-to person for medical information concerning our mother, would have made a report to the family about this injury. I never saw it.

I know you are always right about everything as far as anybody knows and if any information comes up to reveal an error on your part, you will supress, twist or deny that information. So I am not surpriised at your response to my request for information about the injury to Mom’s toe. Is the reason that I want to know because I am concerned the “condition” might be hereditary? I suppose some day I may be helpless in a wheelchair being pushed around by others. My reason for wanting to know something about the trauma that injured my mom’s toe couldn’t possibly be so that I can empathize with her and pray for her more effectively. There must be some selfish motivation to it. It must be because I am afraid that I too will suffer her fate.

Your nastiness makes me appreciate my children’s love all the more! Yes, it is possible for family members to love each other, sadly something you and I never learned. I don’t believe the deficiency lies in me because my children and I learned it just fine. Also one of your children loves me and I love her. You succeeded in teaching the other one to hate. That’s okay, it is pretty clear cut to me where to go for love and where to venture only when I have put on the full armor of God.

Colonizers In California and Palestine


​I attended a tribal gathering this past Saturday with my husband in Mesa Grande, California. We were each given a large reusable shopping bag, a raffle ticket, a $7 food ticket and a tee shirt. The event was free. This worked out well with our empty pockets. No doubt the casino in Mesa Grande helps enable this generosity at the tribe’s annual gathering, which also included cash prizes for the winners of as assortment of games, including all-night Peon. 

Tracy Lee Nelson played the guitar and sang, but I couldn’t hear him very well. The outdoor PA system was not delivering, and to get closer would have meant standing in the hot sun. I liked where we were sitting under a large shade canopy with a nice breeze blowing toward our backs.

The food we got was a piece of Indian fry bread with a generous scoop of beans, lettuce and tomato on top and a bottle of spring water. I ate the beans and salad off the top of my fry bread like it was a plate and was satisfied. My love ate all his food and then ate my fry bread too, and he didn’t feel well the next day. I felt great.

My husband enjoys his cultural singing and dancing, known as Bird Singing and Bird Dancing. We both enjoy walking around the various booths and talking to the promoters of various products and information. But there really is a lot of sitting time in which I am glad to have an ebook on my phone. I was reading, My Promised Land, the Triumph and Tragedy of Israel by Ari Shavit. 

The natives of California have been colonized, exploited, abused and murdered for several centuries. 1848, the California gold rush,  was a time of particular horror for them. In the brand new US state of California, settlers were actually paid to murder natives. 

One of the biggest years of horror for the Palestinians was 1948, 100 years later. At first the Jews settling Palestine bought land legally and got along with the natives, trading with them and hiring them in their businesses (which were, at that time, mostly agricultural, such as orange groves). Then Islamic terror struck in the form of the murders of Jewish civilians by displaced Palestinians or Arabs who sympathized with them. The Jews, severely traumatized by the recent holocaust in Europe, panicked. Innocent Palestinians were driven from their homes along with the guilty. Many more Palestinians died than did the settling Jews.

Over the nearly 170 years since the mostly white gold panners rushed California, the California natives have gradually been endowed with human rights. They no longer grace the cross-hairs of bounty-hunters’ rifles. They are allowed into public parks and museums. During the 1920s they received the right to vote. 

A generation or two after atrocities occur we whites really do want to make amends. We favored affirmative action to our own detriment because it was the right thing to do. In California and many other states, gambling casinos are illegal except on sovereign Indian land. This is a mixed blessing for the tribes. It is raising their standard of living, but very unevenly, and is also benefiting the tribes’ nontribal business partners perhaps even more. Casinos are full of slick, seductive machines designed to separate gamblers from their money. Casino income is the reason for tribal members being kicked off the rolls, so there is more of the money for those who remain on the tribal rolls, resulting in disappointment, hurt and sometimes litigation. Members of non-federally recognized tribes, such as the Tonva of the Los Angeles basin and the Ahashemen of Orange County, historically two of what were once the most populous tribes in Califirnia, were never granted tribal land, nor are they able to benefit from owning casinos. The claim was made that these tribes had gone extinct, they were all killed off. Many were, but many survived by disguising themselves as a different ethnicity or hiding in the hills.  Still in an uneven, crude way, natives are benefiting from the casinos. They are helping to finance the cultural renewal that natives are experiencing. Native languages are being taught in tribal centers throughout the US and Canada. Basketry, archery, flute, rattle and drum making, tribal songs and dances are all making a comeback after generations of supression. Natives are no longer forced into boarding schools or forced to attend mass. They are free to learn what they like and worship as they see fit, but after generations of suppression they may not know a lot about the religion of their ancestors. 

Ari Shavit’s book dealt with the modern  history of the Jews in Palestine, now called Israel. I admired the way Shavit seemed to sympathize with the plight of the Palestinians who suffered loss so that the Jews could have a country. Though his point of view seems more liberal than some, I didn’t like his emphasis on the supposed need of Jews to hang on to their culture. Does a people have the need for aspects of a culture that contain bigotry toward others? Does my culture, right or wrong, take precedence over someone else’s? Everyone should have a right to their culture, insofar as their culture is not a culture of murder, and Islam is probably at least as culpable as Judaism in that regard. The Christian culture has a murderous history as well. Perhaps it is time to leave that behind and root out aspects of all our cultures that are intolerant of others. The Jews may want to do that, but how can they do so without being themselves destroyed? That is probably the question asked by the book. 

Although I enjoyed the Shavit book, I did not enjoy learning that he may be a pervert in a web search on him I did after I had finished the book. He apparently sexually harrassed a beautiful, much younger, female reporter who met with him in order to interview him for the publication she works for. Then he resigned from his job because he was asked to, because other accusers had also come forward. I was disappointed that such a lucid, enjoyable writer as Ari Shavit appears to have such feet of clay.

Jesus in India

Jesus in India

I watched a fascinating documentary, Jesus Was a Buddhist Monk. The theme was that Jesus did not die on the cross. The film speculated on where he might have gone afterwards in order to avoid being captured and re-executed. It ended with Jesus having returned to the Kashmir providence of India which was represented a return to the place he had gone to in his youth between the ages  of 12 to 29, a time frame was not covered in the history of Jesus’ life given in the Bible. The film showed the tomb of Jesus in Kashmir and his footprints showing the marks of the cross. Jesus adoped the name Yuz Asaf during his later decades when he lived as a wandering holy man in the environs of Kashmir.

Intrigued by the film, I read two books for more information on the life of Jesus: The Unknown Life of Jesus Christ by Nicolas Notovich and Jesus Lived in India, his unknown life before and after the crucifixion, by Holger Kersten. The Notovich book was published in 1897, and the Kersten book was published in 1983. Also diring my web research I discovered this related post on wordpress. 

The Notovich book introduces a manuscript kept in a Buddhist monastery in Kashmir. Unfortunately the manuscript had disappeared by the time Kersten retraced Notovich’s steps 100 years later, although he did find evidence to support its existence.

The Notovich book did not contain the assertion that Jesus survived the crucifixion. The book describes the author’s exploration of India,  Nepal and Tibet, in the late 1800s, by horse-drawn carriage and horseback. One of the members of his party was attacked and killed by a panther while they camped in a lonely place. Notovich heard about, and eventually tracked down, while recovering from a broken leg, written histories of and quotations from Issa, the Arabic name for Jesus. At last two volumes were brought, read and translated into Russian. Notovich wrote down the translations. They told the history of the Israelites, the birth of Jesus, his early interest in the word of God, his departure from his parents home around the age of 13, his travels through India, Nepal, Tibet his instructions there, and his preaching during that time, his return to Israel via Persia at about the age of 29, where the Notovich manuscript takes up the same history as the gospels, albeit refreshingly different.

I love Jesus. When I was young I went to both Lutheran Sunday School and Seventh Day Adventist Sabbath School. They both took place in the same building. During that time I learned to pray and had one of my first mystical experiences at about the age of 7. Up until that time I had recurring nightmares where my tongue and hands felt thick and I experienced a terrifying feeling of bondage. The nightmares still occurred after that, but they were no longer terrifying, because now I knew what to do. I thought about Jesus and prayed to Him for help. I saw a purple form as he came to me. I felt energized in his love, comforted and in peace. 

Later on, my father stopped attending church and my mother, siblings and I attended the Methodist Church. She also took me to the Unitarian Church a few times, although it was a 30 minute drive away. The summer after I graduated from high school she took me to Unitarian Summer Camp for a week. I left home a year later and took a job where I worked Sundays, although I had wanted to fellowship with the Jesus People. 

Back to my young years, around the age of 10, thanks to rides there from a neighbor, I attended Sunday School 10 Sundays in a row at the Assembly of God Church, for which I was awarded my own red letter edition King James Bible. The more liberal churches I attended with my mother were using more modern translations, but I loved that Bible! I loved reading the words of Jesus set apart by the red ink. I read them over and over.

It didn’t take very long to read everything Jesus ever said that had been recorded that I knew about. It can be done in less than an hour, and I usually read a good chunk of it every night before I went to sleep. Before long I knew all of Jesus’ words by heart.

How wonderful to have an additional treasury of the precious words of Jesus included in The Unknown Life of Jesus Christ by Nicolas Notovich! Here is a small sample from Chsoter 7:

5.  But Issa [Jesus] then said: “The miracles of our God began when the universe was created; they occur each day, each instant; whosoever does not see them is deprived of one of the most beautiful gifts of life.” …

13. And Issa also taught the pagans not to strive to see the Eternal Spirit with their own eyes, but to endeavor to feel it in their hearts, and, by a truly pure soul, to make themselves worthy of its favors. 

14. “Not only must you desist from offering human sacrifices,” said he, “but you must immolate no animal to which life has been given, for all things have been created for the benefit of man.”

15. “Do not take what belongs to others, for it would be robbing your neighbor of the goods he has acquired by the sweat of his brow.” 

16. “Deceive no one, that you may not yourself be deceived; strive to justify yourself before the last judgment, for it will then be too late.” 

18. “Do not give yourself up to debauchery, for it is a violation of the laws of God.”

18. “You shall attain supreme beatitude, not only by purifying yourself, but also by leading others into the path that shall permit them to regain primitive perfection.”

The Notovich book created a furor among Christians. Some detractors traveled to the Hemis Monastery in northern India in order to destroy the original documents. As a result the abbotts there refused to show them or even to admit their existence.

In 1922, after the furor had subsided, Swami Abhedananda, a disciple of Ramakrishna, having read the Notovich book, traveled to the monastery where he was shone the documents, and was assured that Notovich’s account of his visit there, and his rendering of the documents, were accurate.

While not exalting him extravagantly, Buddhism seems willing enough to accept Jesus as one of it’s saints. Christian theologians, on the other hand, seem to want to draw a hedge around Christianity and create a schism between it and Buddhism. None need exist. The two religions are very similar. But this hedge drawing has been going on for nearly two millennia, which is probably why the material, discovered by Notovich, was left out of the Bible in the first place! Clergy tends to divide, emphasizing differences rather than commonality.

I then read Jesus’s lived in India, his unknown life before and after the crucifixion by Hoger Kersten. 

The Kersten book discusses the Shroud of Turin extensively, giving convincing arguments for it’s authenticity. The shroud is like a detailed document of what Jesus experienced before and during the crucifixion. This meter and a half of linen in which Jesus was wrapped after the crucifixion bears the imprint of his visage. Perhaps the aloe and myrrh that his body was slathered in provided the pigment for the imprint of his frace and body which became impregnated in the linen shroud. In any case, according to Kersten, some body heat would have been necessary. The little balls in the whip Jesus was whipped with left marks all over his body that were imprinted into the shroud. The crown of thorns was like a hood that left wounds all over his head, forehead and the sides of his face. The nail wounds were in the wrists, not the palms, and also behind the toes, in a little different place on each foot. The wound in his side from the sword was also visible in the shroud.

What Kersten found remarkable was that Jesus was still bleeding when he was wrapped in the shroud. All his wounds were bleeding even one in his forehead from the crown of thorns, which had been removed before the herbs and shroud were applied and he was laid in the tomb. His head was raised, making the forehead the most elevated part of the body. That this wound continued to bleed would indicate a beating heart. 

Jesus respirations and heart rate had slowed down and were imperceptable, his body temperature had fallen. He was presumed dead. He may have been clinically dead for awhile and then recovered like one who has what is now known as a near death experience.

We do know that, according to the gospels, Jesus left the tomb and appeared to many, not as a spirit or ghost, but as a man in the flesh, and there was no body left in the tomb. 

That he managed to escape a government intent on putting him to death was a miracle, and in that he must have been aided by the Essenes. They must have known intuitively that he needed rescuing from the sealed tomb, brought him a garment, and concealed him until he had recovered enough to make the trip to India. 

The Kersten book gives a background of Israelites being in Kashmir, making the case that the lost tribes ended up there after being dispersed. It was even hinted that Kashmir was the original promised land for the Israelites, rather than Palestine.

According to the Qur’an, Jesus did not die on the cross, but it appeared that he did:

And their saying: Surely we have killed the Messiah, Isa son of Marium, the apostle of Allah; and they did not kill him nor did they crucify him [to death], but it appeared to them so…, and most surely those who differ therein are only in doubt about it; they have no knowledge respecting it, but only follow conjecture, and they killed him not for sure”. Surah  4:157 M.H. Shakir 

Christian dogma often require that a modern, scientifically literate human being suspend the rational thought process and accept unscientific points of dogma without question. 

Luke 6:39 King James Bible: And he spake a parable unto them, Can the blind lead the blind? shall they not both fall into the ditch?

Jesus is saying, open your eyes! Don’t be led around blindly! Investigate for yourself! Don’t just take someone else’s word for it! I can believe in Jesus, the man of God, the holy one, the teacher of spiritual truths, even the perfect examplar, without burdening myself with unlikely mythology. Even of that, I can believe something miraculous if it is revealed to me personally.